The overall approach to the numerical part

The numerical simulations focused on the development of combustion technology for a compression ignition (CI) engine fueled with a mixture of biodiesel and ammonia.
The numerical simulations have been conducted based on three main objectives:

  • Development of an overall methodology for simulating CI combustion engines fueled with a mixture of biodiesel and ammonia.
  • An application of three-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations (3D CFD), zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model (SRM), detailed chemistry, and optimization algorithms working in co-optimization as a software toolchain to support the ACTIVATE technology development at various stages of the project.
  • Determination of simulation method and rules that enable the extrapolating of findings from this work for the application to other CI combustion engines to support their retrofitting to the use of ammonia
Simulation workflow and reference experimental data

0D Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) for CI engines

  • Engine model calibration for selected operating points based on data from biodiesel and bioDiesel/NH3 fuelled engine

3D CFD modeling

  • Cold flow RANS simulations with single and double fuel injections
  • Assessing GDI (NH3) configuration for optimal mixture formation