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Fuel characterization

This work package (WP1) will be led by NTNU. The combustion analysis of the fuel will be investigated at NTNU using a small compression ignition engine. This engine will be adapted to conduct high pressure biodiesel/diesel injections and liquid ammonia under high pressure injections for testing different operational parameters.

Engine performance and emissions will be recorded, in particular:

  • NOx,
  • particulate matter
  • ammonia slip. 

Injection of the liquid ammonia will be achieved with a newly developed gas driven high pressure system including emergency shutdown and venting capabilities.


Things to investigate

These experiments will investigate the injection strategies and concepts towards: 

  • improved ignition,
  • flame stabilization,
  • emission characteristics,
  • combustion efficiency. 


This WP will be aided by numerical investigations and will result in an injection strategy for the liquid ammonia to enhance mixing and minimise latent heat issues. Optimized fuel injection strategy will ensure proper combustion to speed up the development process in WP2.  


M1.1. Instrumented engine equipped with ammonia injection system, running and ready for optimization ☑ achieved

M1.2 Fuel injection strategy established ☑ achieved

M1.3 Dual fuel composition optimized ☑ achieved

News regarding Work Package 1

In October 2023 a paper titled “Ammonia in Dual-Fueled Internal...

In October 2023 our paper titled “Experimental and numerical study...

In August 2023 a paper titled “Energy and Exergy Assessments...

Work package 1
started 4 months ago

Contact regarding WP1

Researcher, Work package 1 leader. Overseeing the design, development, commissioning and experimentation with the single cylinder compression ignition, direct injection engine, operating on liquid ammonia and diesel fuel, with the work conducted at Department of Energy and Process Engineering, NTNU.
David will co – supervise a PhD candidate working on this project.


David Emberson

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